India’s net zero plan

#GS-03 Environment, Science and Technology

For Prelims:

What is Carbon Neutrality:

  • Carbon neutrality is a state of  net-zero carbon dioxide  emissions.
  • This however does not mean that a country does not  emit  carbon dioxide, it just means that the amount of CO2 emitted by the nation is also  absorbed  by various carbon sinks in the country.

Countries and their Carbon Neutrality Targets:

  • Bhutan  and  Suriname  are the  only  two countries that have achieved carbon neutrality and are actually  carbon negative  (removing more carbon than they emit).
  • Under the  European Green Deal  of the European Commission, Europe is expected to be carbon neutral by  2050 .
  • USA  has also declared their aim to make the country carbon neutral by the year  2050 .
  • In September 2020,  China  announced that it would aim to reach a  peak  in its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions before  2030  and achieve  carbon neutrality  by  2060 .
  • India  has undertaken a pledge saying that it will transition to net zero emissions by  2070 .

Types of Hydrogen

Green Hydrogen:

  • Green hydrogen is defined as hydrogen produced by  splitting water  into hydrogen and oxygen using  renewable  electricity.

Blue Hydrogen:

  • Blue hydrogen is when natural gas is split into hydrogen and CO2 either by  Steam Methane Reforming  (SMR) or  Auto Thermal Reforming  (ATR), but the  CO2 is captured  and then  stored .
  • The ‘capturing’ is done through a process called  Carbon Capture Usage and Storage  (CCUS).

Grey Hydrogen:

  • Producing Grey Hydrogen is a  similar  process to  blue hydrogen  where  SMR  or  ATR  are used to split natural gas into Hydrogen and CO2.
  • But the CO2 is  not   captured  and is  released  into the atmosphere.

Pink Hydrogen:

  • Similar to green hydrogen, pink hydrogen is made via  electrolysis , but using  nuclear energy  as its source of power.

Yellow Hydrogen:

  • Another type of hydrogen made by  electrolysis  is yellow, where electrolysis is achieved  solely  through  solar power .
  • This is  unlike  green which could use a combination of renewable energy sources such as wind or solar or tidal etc.

Source “ Atomic energy, hydrogen power India’s net zero plan

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