About Fundamental Duties:
Fundamental Duties were added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of the Constitution in 1976.
- 10 Fundamental Duties were added in the 42nd CAA and the 11th was added in the 86th CAA in 2002.
- The idea of Fundamental duties was adopted from the constitution of USSR. It was recommended by Swaran Singh Committee.
- They are non-justiciable but can be enforced by law by the Parliament.
The 11 Fundamental Duties are
- Abide by the Indian Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem
- Cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom
- Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India
- Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so
- Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
- Value and preserve the rich heritage of the country’s composite culture
- Protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures
- Develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
- Safeguard public property and to abjure violence
- Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement
- Provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years.
The two recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee which were not added into the Fundamental duties are:
- a)The duty to pay taxes and
- b)Citizens to be penalized/punished by the parliament for any non-compliance with or refusal to observe any of the duties.
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